Jesuit's Bark

Jesuit's Bark, also known as cinchona bark,[1] as Peruvian Bark, and as China Bark, is a former name of the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria, as it contains quinine. It is so named because it was obtained from the bark of several species of the genus Cinchona, of the family Rubiaceae, that have been discovered at different times and are indigenous in the Western Andes of South America and were first described and introduced by Jesuit priests who did missionary work in Peru. Other terms referring to this preparation and its source were "Jesuit's Tree", "Jesuit's Powder" and "Pulvis Patrum". 

Could an old malaria drug help fight the new coronavirus?
www.asbmb.org › asbmb-today › science › could-an-old-malaria-dru...
Feb 6, 2020 - Chloroquine is a synthetic form of quinine, a compound found in the bark of cinchona trees native to Peru and used for centuries to treat malaria ...

Chloroquine - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
www.sciencedirect.com › topics › agricultural-and-biological-sciences
Chloroquine is a semisynthetic derivative of quinine, the first drug used ... but is converted to the diprotonated form within the acidic environment and thus ...

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Quinine - Wikipediaen.wikipedia.org › wiki › Quinine
Quinine was used as a muscle relaxant by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, to halt shivering due to low temperatures. The Quechuas would mix the ground bark of cinchona trees with sweetened water to offset ...

肥満でも筋肉ムキムキでもダメ - 匿名党
tokumei10.blogspot.com › 2020/03 › blog-post_139
4 日前 - とは言え世界で肥満がもっとも深刻な国は米国じゃないんですよね。 で、. 筋肉ムキムキでもダメダメなんだな、コレが。(爆wwwwww 理由は簡単なんだけど医者がそれを認めるわけにはいかないでしょうな。多くの論文が紙くずと化すでしょう ...


The English weekly Mercurius Politicus in 1658 contained in four numbers the announcement that: "The excellent powder known by the name of 'Jesuit's powder' may be obtained from several London chemists". It remains to recall the fact that even in the 17th and 18th centuries the bark kept in the Jesuit pharmacies or in their colleges was considered particularly efficacious because they were better able to provide a genuine unadulterated supply. Further, that in those two centuries Jesuit missionaries took the remedy to the malaria regions of foreign countries, even reaching the courts of Peking, China and Kyoto, Japan, where they cured the emperor by its means; that in Peru during the 18th century they urged American collectors to lay out new plantations; and in the 19th century they were the first to plant cinchona outside of South America


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Gin and tonic

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https://books.google.co.jp › books
Trade Information Bulletin
1924 · United States
The contributions of the factories to the budget of the Kina Bureau are paid quarterly. ... In view of the complete control of the Dutch syndicate over prices on some 90 per cent of the visible production of cinchona bark and ...

https://www.jstor.org › stable
Cinchona Plantation in the New World - jstor
by FR Fosberg · 1947 · Cited by 7 · Related articles
early 1942, when the cinchona planta- tions of the Far East were to be lost to the Japanese, American drug manufac- turers were chafing at the quinine monopoly of the Dutch Kina Bureau. The shrewd cinchona planters ...

https://books.google.co.jp › books
Foreign Commerce Weekly
1942 · Consular reports
Wordings of the Dutch Quinine Monopoly In Netherlands Indies above 42,000 acres are planted to cinchona trees, and approximately 23,000,000 pounds of ... The administrative head is the Kina Bureau in Amsterdam.

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...Good Guide.



マラリアは熱帯・亜熱帯の感染症と考えがちであるが、かつては欧州や米国、日本にも土着のマラリアが存在した。まず、マラリア(mal-aria)は「悪い空気・空間(ariaはオペラなどのアリアと同義)」であり、ラテン語圏の病名である。マラリアは色々な別名を持つが、「ローマ熱」とも呼び、古代のローマにも土着していた。現在のバチカン宮殿あたりは低い沼地であったようで、ハマダラ蚊が生息して多くのローマ人やキリスト者の命を奪った。また、米国南部から中米にかけてもマラリアは流行していた。マラリアを(実際には媒介する蚊を)駆除するために「Office of National Defense Malaria Control Activities」という組織が作られた。この組織はマラリアを駆逐した後はその役割がなくなり存続が危ぶまれたが、姿かたちを変えながら今日のCDC(Center for Disease Control and Prevention)となった。日本では「瘧:おこり / 瘧病:おこりやまい」と呼ばれるものの一部がマラリアであったと考えられ、8世紀ころの「養老律令」(757年)に瘧の記載がある。明治以降では北海道深川市に駐屯した屯田兵と家族の20%近くが感染していたと伝えられ、本州だけでも琵琶湖周辺や愛知などに土着マラリアの記録が残っている。日本でマラリアがなくなったのは、水田に生息するハマダラ蚊が水田の環境や稲作法の変化により減少したことが理由ではないかともいわれている。

キニーネより歴史の古い抗マラリア作用のある物質も忘れてはならない。中国では1000年以上前からヨモギ属の植物が皮膚病やマラリアの治療に用いられていた。ヨモギ属のクソニンジン(Artemisia annua)からアルテミシニンという抗マラリア薬を見出したのは、2015年に日本の大村智氏らと共にノーベル生理学・医学賞を受賞したTu Youyou(ト ユゥユゥ)氏である。アルテミシニンも耐性の熱帯熱マラリアに効果が期待され重症のマラリア治療に大きな影響を与えた。

(文責:日本BD 吉田 武史)